October 26, 2014 03:35 UTC

Science in the News

The Next Big Thing in Agriculture May Be Very Small

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04/02/2014

Microbes: The Next Big Thing in Agriculture

The Next Big Thing in Agriculture May Be Very Small
The Next Big Thing in Agriculture May Be Very Small i
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From VOA Learning English, this is Science in the News
 
I’m Anna Matteo.
 
And I’m Christopher Cruise.
 
Today we tell how some extremely small organisms may help meet our food needs in the future. Then, we report on an American project to save endangered orchids. Finally, we tell about the discovery of what British scientists are calling the oldest human footprints found outside of Africa. 

Small Organisms May Help Meet Food Needs of the Future

Experts say farmers will need to produce about 70 percent more food by the middle of the century. They predict that nine billion people will need to be fed worldwide by 2050. 
 
The prediction means experts will need to develop more-effective farming methods that cause less harm to the environment. Experts say living things called “microbes” could help meet that need. A microbe is an organism so small it can be seen only with a microscope. 
 
Jeff Dangl is a biology professor at the University of North Carolina. He says researchers are finding extremely small organisms in the ground. 
 
“This soil was teeming with life.”
 
Jeff Dangl says one gram of soil contains between 100 million and one billion microbes. 
 
He says microbes are taking part in a healthy exchange with the plants that share the soil. Around plant roots, microbes change chemicals in the air and soil into food for the plants. The microbes include bacteria and material known as “fungi.”  
 
Some microbes act as bodyguards. They produce anti-bodies and other chemicals to fight harmful germs. 
 
Plants make sugar through a process called “photosynthesis.” This happens when a plant receiving light changes water and carbon dioxide into food.  
 
Professor Dangl says much of the sugar is pumped down through the roots. There, it is turned into sugar-based microbe food and released into the soil. He says that is done to get microbes to help the plants grow better. Some of the organisms turn chemicals in the air and soil into food that the plants can eat.
 
The microbes produce antibiotics and other chemicals to fight the harmful germs. Professor Dangl said bacterial and fungal parts of the plant organism must be considered to understand how plant organisms operate.
 
The biosciences company Novozymes already sells one kind of fungi that helps plants get phosphorous from the soil. 
 
Shawn Semones is the head of product research for the company. At an experimental greenhouse in Virginia, he is treating the roots of corn plants with a microscopic fungus. 
 
He holds a small plastic cup which has a dead insect inside. The insect is developing a fine white coat of mold -- a substance that grows on living organisms. That mold killed the insect. The white covering is producing spores that will blow in the wind to infect another insect.  
 
Shawn Semones says the microbe develops naturally. He says Novozymes has found a way to produce it in very large amounts and offer it to farmers as a bio-pesticide. A bio-pesticide protects crops from animals, microbes, bacteria and fungi.
 
Novozymes recently signed a $300 million deal with Monsanto, a company best known for producing seeds and chemicals. The goal is to help bring discoveries about microbes to farmers’ fields.
 
You are listening to the VOA Learning English program Science in the News. With Christopher Cruise, I’m Anna Matteo in Washington.
 
Project to Save Endangered Orchids Growing in Florida

Our planet is home to 20,000 kinds of orchids. Orchids exist on almost every continent. But the beautiful and valuable flowers live mainly in warm, moist climates like that found in the southern part of Florida. 
 
Project to Save Endangered Orchids Blossoms in Floridai
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04/25/2014

America’s “sunshine state” has about 50 native species of orchid. But many are in danger of dying out. This threat has led scientists to launch a five-year project to save them.                
 
Carl Lewis directs Miami’s Fairchild Tropical Botanical Garden. He says many orchid species native to Florida have become rare.
 
“Most of those orchids are very difficult to find now. They’ve, they’ve been hunted almost to extinction in the wild. So, really, we launched this project just as an effort to bring those orchids back.” 
 
The project to grow and plant one million orchid seedlings began two years ago. Orchids grow mostly on trees. But their seedlings are extremely small, delicate and weak. So they start their life in a laboratory.
 
The seeds grow in clean bottles with required nutrients. After that, the young plants are moved to a warming device with LED lights. Next, they go to a nursery -- an area where plants are grown. Two years may pass before the plants are strong enough to be connected to -- or fixed onto -- trees.
 
Volunteers help Carl Lewis to transplant -- or move -- the orchid plants. He says it is important to transplant enough older orchids so they can continue to reproduce without that help. 
 
“This is supposed to be an infusion, just to get so many out there that they start to reproduce on their own.” 
 
After these plants are moved to areas where other orchids grow, scientists hope insects and tiny organisms will find the orchids.
 
The campaign to save native orchids also depends on help from local students. They have been asked to watch the transplanted orchids in their neighborhoods. A number of plants will also be given away to try to reduce the chance that people will steal them off the trees.
 
The Center for Plant Conservation guides the conservation and study of threatened plants across the United States. The center is based in the city of St. Louis, Missouri.
 
Britain’s Oldest Human Footprints Found on Coastline

Finally, British scientists have found what they believe are the oldest human footprints ever discovered outside of Africa. The footprints of what appears to be ancient humans were found in the seaside community of Norfolk, in eastern Britain. The scientists estimate the markings are between 800,000 and almost one million years old. They may be about 500,000 years older than the earliest footprints ever found in the country. If so, that could provide the oldest evidence of human beings in northern Europe.
 
Britain's Oldest Human Footprints Found on Beachi
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Images and a model of one of the footprints were recently shown to reporters at the British Museum in London. A team of scientists found the footprints in May, 2013. The scientists work for the British Museum, Britain’s Natural History Museum, and Queen Mary University of London. The researchers say ocean water from incoming tidal waves made it impossible to remove the prints from the coast.

The area appears to have 50 footprints of both adults and children. They were found near the village of Happisburg. The British Museum says the Happisburg area has what it calls a “remarkable concentration” of early Stone Age archeological sites. All were found since 2000.
 
Archeologist Nick Ashton described how he felt when he recognized the footprints came from prehistoric humans. At the time, he was looking at e-mails on his computer.
 
“It was only when the, this overhead views e-mailed through to me back in my office I suddenly looked at it and opened up the file and I thought, ‘This is absolutely amazing, you know -- there, there is no doubt this is really is human footprints.” 
 
He says the discovery will change the understanding of early human history in Europe.
 
The researchers estimate the height of the early humans at between about .93 and 1.73 meters. The difference in the heights suggests a group of mixed ages. 
 
Isabelle de Groote is with Liverpool John Moores University in the city of Liverpool. She examined the footprints. She says the markings help to tell about the humans who may have made them.
 
“The spread of the footprint size gives us an indication that we have children, a number of children and then probably some adults there with at least one, you know with probably one, male.”
                                                    
One footprint appears to show the mark of toes.
 
Scientists say Britain was joined to continental Europe about a million years ago. It is not known how the early humans survived in the cold climate of northern Europe. Scientists believe the creatures who left the footprints were related to Pioneer Man, an ancestor of Homo sapiens. Pioneer Man was known to have lived in a warmer climate. 
 
Researchers continue looking for human fossil remains in the Happisburg area. A report on the footprint discovery and its meaning was published in the journal PLOS ONE
 
This Science in the News was written by Jerilyn Watson. It was based on stories from VOA reporters Steve Baragona and George Putic. Christopher Cruise produced the program.
 
I’m Anna Matteo.
 
And I’m Christopher Cruise.
 
To comment on this program, go to our website, learningenglish.voanews.com. While you are there, you can read, listen to and download our programs. You can follow us on Facebook, iTunes, LinkedIn, Twitter and on our YouTube Channel, all at VOA Learning English
 
Join us again next week for more news about science on the Voice of America!

 
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Making Food, Saving Orchids and Really, Really Old Footprints

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Comments
     
by: Epifanio from: México
06/11/2014 11:12 PM
I really liked this information about human evolution,tiny microorganisms in the soil and how to protect endangered species like orchids.With this sort of information I can understanding many social facts,natural phenomenon and how the human being is figthing many problems in today´s world.Thanks the Voice of America.

In Response

by: Moderator
06/13/2014 6:31 PM
Dear Epifanio:

Thanks for writing. I host and produce the weekly Science in the News feature, which is one of our most-popular programs.

I'm glad to hear the program is helpful, and I look forward to hearing from you again.

Christopher Cruise


by: Maria from: Smolensk, Russia
06/11/2014 4:05 PM
Researchers suppose the production of food over the world to increase by the middle of the century because of the number of people will rise to record high level and they need to be fed by two thousand and fifty. And the researchers and experts are developing the new sustainable farming methods that need to be a lot more effective than today and be much more environmentally friendly that cause less harm to enviroment. The use of bio-pesticides offers practical solution to agricultural problems. Recently researchers working for biotechnology company Novozymes have declared the new enzymatic pesticides to help farmers to take healthier crops and higher yields and minimize enviromental impact.
I read that Met52 (Metarhizium) ® is fungus pesticide and its spores attach to the surface of insects, begin to germinate, kill and in result to better control of damaging pests as trips, mites and etc. Also agricultural biologists announced the new bioyield enhancers can improve plant abilitity to uptake nutrients. In the thirteenth of December, two thousand and thirteen, Monsanto and Novozymes established the BioAg Alliance with an aim to develop new solutions to agricultural, consumers and society.
The other story describes the constructive approaches to increase and save orchids. Orchids are in Orchidaceae family. They are beautiful plants with unusual shade of the flower. Orhids exist the worldwide, especially in warm, moist climates like in the southern part of Florida. There are over fifty species of orchids in Florida. But many are in danger of extermination. The biologists who work for Tropical Botanic Garden lanched a five-year project on growing and saving orchids from extermination. The aim of this project is to obtain, grow and move seedling into naturally areas. The biologists use biotechnology methods of growing the orchids. They plant seeds into nutrial medium in clear bottles at the labolatory. Plants grow extremely slow and grow up in two years. After volunteers transplant orchids on the trees.
The third story tell us about an amazing discovery of British scientists in England. The researchers declared the most ancient human footprints to be found on the coastline. The scientists assume their discovery to reach the age of one million years.

In Response

by: Moderator
06/11/2014 4:43 PM
Wow, Maria. Your written English is really awesome.

Keep up the great work and thanks for listening to VOA Learning English!


by: Richard ( Nicky) from: Dominican Republic
06/10/2014 8:15 PM
Interesting program and very good job.
But we must know behind anything there's something more intelligent


by: Kashif Lodhi from: Pakistan
06/10/2014 4:20 PM
New discoveries are always appreciated we must know the hard work behind it.Thank you


by: Kashif lodhi from: Pakistan
06/10/2014 8:37 AM
please let me know about why the quiz sectin in not working.waiting anxiously for reply.

In Response

by: Moderator
06/10/2014 6:07 PM
We're checking on that. Thanks for letting us know!

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