to the MAKING OF A NATION – American history in VOA Special English.
sixty was a year of mixed feelings of hope and fear.
hope for the future, because they would be electing a new president. But they had
fear that even a new president could not hold the nation together. The states of
the South were very close to leaving the Union over the issue of slavery.
in our series, Tony Riggs and Frank Oliver talk about the candidates and the
issues in the election of eighteen sixty.
years as president, James Buchanan decided not to run again. Buchanan was a
Democrat. His party, like the nation, was split over slavery. Southern
Democrats wanted the party to support slavery. Northern Democrats refused.
opposition Republican Party expected to gain votes from dissatisfied Democrats.
Republicans had become stronger since the last presidential election in
eighteen fifty-six. They felt their candidate would win in eighteen sixty.
Democratic nominating convention opened in April in Charleston, South Carolina.
Senator Stephen Douglas of Illinois was the leading candidate. He had the
support of a majority of convention delegates. But he did not have the
two-thirds majority needed to win the nomination.
Southern Democrats did not like Stephen Douglas. Some did not trust him. Others
did not accept his policies on slavery. Douglas did not oppose slavery or the
spread of slavery. However, he said no federal law could make slavery legal in
a territory where the people did not want it. This was his policy of
Southern Democrats who opposed Stephen Douglas were led by William Yancey of
Alabama. Yancey wanted to get a pro-slavery statement into the party's
platform. He was sure Douglas would not accept the nomination based on such a
failed to get the statement he wanted, he would take Southern Democrats out of
the convention. And out of the party.
committee on resolutions considered three platforms. One platform declared that
the people of a territory had the right to decide if slavery would be legal or
illegal. The second declared that the Supreme Court had that right. And the
third declared that no one did -- that slavery was legal everywhere.
Yancey spoke to the convention in support of the pro-slavery platform. He said
pro-slavery Democrats did not want to destroy the union. But he said someone
had to make clear to anti-slavery Democrats that the union would be dissolved
if the constitutional rights of slave owners were not honored.
spoke of the danger of a great slave rebellion. He described it as a sleeping
volcano that threatened the lives, property, and honor of the people of the South.
He said the actions of the North might cause that volcano to explode.
convention delegate answered Yancey's speech. He said Northern Democrats were
tired of defending the interests of the South. "Now," he said,
"Yancey tells us we must agree that slavery is right. He orders us to hide
our faces and eat dirt. Gentlemen of the South," he said, "you
mistake us. We will not do it!"
atmosphere of tension, it was clear that a pro-slavery platform would not be
approved. The Alabama delegation announced that, therefore, it must withdraw.
The delegations from the other six states of the Deep South -- Arkansas,
Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, and Texas -- did the same.
fifty men organized their own convention. They approved a pro-slavery platform,
but did not nominate anyone for president. They agreed to meet again a few
weeks later in Richmond, Virginia.
Northern Democrats postponed their nomination, too. They agreed to meet again
in Baltimore, Maryland.
Republican Party held its presidential nominating convention in Chicago,
Illinois. There was no question who was the leading candidate. He was the
best-known Republican in the country at that time: Senator William Seward of
Republican platform seemed to contain something for everyone.
opposed to slavery, the platform rejected the idea that slave owners had a
constitutional right to take slaves into new territories. For foreign-born
Americans, it supported their right to full citizenship. For manufacturers, it
proposed a new tax on imports to protect American industry. And for those in
the northwest, it called for free land for settlers, and federal aid to build
roads and canals.
approved the platform with loud cheers. They would return the next day to
nominate their candidate for president.
Seward was sure he would win the nomination. If not on the first vote, he
thought, then on the second. But there was some opposition to Seward. And his
campaign organization failed to see its strength.
candidate of the opposition was Abraham Lincoln.
Republican convention voted three times. Lincoln gained support on each ballot.
But neither he nor Seward received enough votes for the nomination. Then,
before a fourth vote could be taken, a delegate from Ohio asked to speak. The
big room became silent. "Mister chairman," he said, "I rise to
announce the change of four votes of Ohio to Mister Lincoln."
enough to give Abraham Lincoln the Republican nomination for president.
later, the Democrats re-opened their nominating convention. Most of the
Southern Democrats who walked out of the first meeting came back. Many of their
seats at the convention had been given to new delegates. So a new dispute arose
over which delegates had the right to be there.
compromise plan split the seats between old and new delegates. But most of the
Southerners rejected it. One by one, a majority of each Southern delegation
walked out. The remaining Democrats then voted for a candidate. They chose
Democrats nominated their own candidate, John Breckinridge of Kentucky. And a
group called the Constitutional Union Party nominated John Bell.
election campaign opened in the summer of eighteen sixty. Lincoln was not
well-known. So the Republican Party published many books and pamphlets about
him. They told the story of a poor farm boy who educated himself and, through
hard work and honesty, had become a candidate for president.
supporters organized a loud and colorful campaign, complete with marching bands
and signs. Lincoln himself was silent. He said, "It has been my decision
since becoming a candidate to make no speeches. I am here only to see you and
to let you see me. "
it was Lincoln's assistants who had advised him to say nothing. They believed
he had said enough in the past to make clear his position on the important
Douglas, on the other hand, campaigned very hard. His health was poor. And he
had trouble getting money. But that did not stop him from speaking in almost
few weeks, however, Douglas recognized that he had no real hope of winning. His
position on slavery had cost him all support in the South.
believed that, of the other candidates, Abraham Lincoln had the best chance of
winning the presidential election. He also believed pro-slavery extremists
would use Lincoln's election as an excuse to take Southern states out of the
union. So he turned his efforts to a campaign for the union itself.
"The election of a man to the presidency by the American people, under the
Constitution, is no reason for any attempt to dissolve this glorious
day was November sixth. The popular vote was close between Lincoln and Douglas.
But the electoral vote was not. Lincoln received one hundred eighty.
Breckinridge received seventy-two. Bell received thirty-nine. And Douglas
received just twelve.
Lincoln would be the new president of the United States.
enter office facing the most serious crisis in American history. For, before
his inauguration, southern states finally acted on their threats. They began to
leave the union.
be our story next week.
Our program was written by Frank Beardsley. The narrators were Tony Riggs
and Frank Oliver. Transcripts, MP3s and
podcasts of our programs are online, along with historical images, at
voaspecialenglish.com. Join us again next week for THE MAKING OF A NATION - an
American history series in VOA Special English.
This is program #92 of THE
MAKING OF A NATION