November 27, 2014 08:10 UTC

Science in the News

Researchers Hunt for Clues about Parkinson’s Disease

Jennifer Lopez performs at the Muhammad Ali Celebrity Fight Night Awards
Jennifer Lopez performs at the Muhammad Ali Celebrity Fight Night Awards

Multimedia

Play or download an MP3 of this story
  • Researchers Hunt for Clues about Parkinson’s Disease

This is Science In The News, in VOA Special English. I’m Faith Lapidus.

 
And I’m Bob Doughty. Today we tell about Parkinson’s disease. We also report on treatments for the disease.
 
Parkinson’s is a disease of the central nervous system. It is a progressive disorder, meaning it gets worse over time. The disease affects a small area of cells in the middle of the brain. This area is called the substantia nigra. The cells slowly lose their ability to produce a chemical called dopamine.
 
The decrease in the amount of dopamine can result in one or more general symptoms of Parkinson’s disease. These include shaking of the hands, arms and legs. Other signs can include difficulty moving or keeping balanced while walking or standing. There might be emotional changes, like feeling depressed or worried. The symptoms of Parkinson's differ from person to person. They also differ in their intensity.
 
The disease is named after James Parkinson. He was a British doctor who first described this condition in 1817. During the 1960s, researchers discovered changes in the brains of people with Parkinson’s. These discoveries led to medicines to treat the effects of the disease. There is no cure for Parkinson's and no way to prevent it. And doctors still are not sure what causes the disease.
 
America’s National Institutes of Health says at least 500 thousand people in the United States have Parkinson’s disease. About 50 thousand new cases are reported each year. That number is expected to grow as the average age of the population increases.
 
Parkinson’s often affects people around the age of 60. Some researchers believe that almost everyone would develop Parkinson’s eventually if they lived long enough.
 
Most patients have what is called idiopathic Parkinson’s disease. Idiopathic means the cause is unknown. People who develop the disease often want to link it to something they can identify. This might be a medical operation or extreme emotional tension.
 
Many doctors reject this idea of a direct link to Parkinson’s. They point to people who have similar experiences and do not develop the disease.
 
There are several theories about the cause of Parkinson’s, but none have been confirmed. Studies have shown a link between the disease and some chemical products. In early 2013, a United Nations study found that man-made chemicals in everyday products are to blame. Other researchers say the disease could result from having contact with chemical pesticides, like those used for killing insects.
 
Scientists say it is difficult to show a direct link between diseases like Parkinson’s and the environment. But in 2007, a European study found a link between Parkinson’s and pesticide use. The study also showed that serious head injuries increased a person's risk of the disease.
 
Scientists at Aberdeen University in Scotland collected information about more than 900 people with Parkinson's or similar conditions. They compared this group to almost two thousand people without the disorder. All the people were asked about their use of pesticides, chemical fluids and metals like iron. The researchers also collected information about family history of the disease and head injuries.
 
Farm workers and people who said they often used pesticides had a 41 percent greater risk of Parkinson's than others. The disease was also two and one-half times more common among people who had been knocked unconscious more than once in their lives. These people temporarily lost consciousness after suffering a blow to the head.
 
Another area of study is family genetics. There are examples of members of a family having Parkinson’s disease. The National Institutes of Health says about 15 percent of Parkinson’s patients are related to others with the disease.
 
About 10 percent of Parkinson’s cases are said to result from genetic mutations, changes within specific genes. One such mutation is called parkin. Recently, German scientists reported finding what they call a signal transduction pathway that activates the parkin gene. They said it also prevents stress-induced death of dopamine-producing neuron cells.
 
American scientists reported finding how the most common genetic mutations in familial Parkinson’s damage brain cells. They said these mutations prevent an intracellular system from operating normally. This system prevents a protein called alpha-synuclein from reaching harmful levels in dopamine-producing neurons.
 
The report came from researchers at the Columbia University School of Medicine and the Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University in New York. Their findings were published in the journal Nature Neuroscience.
 
There is no cure for Parkinson’s disease. But improved treatments to ease the effects of the disease make it possible for many patients to live almost normal lives. People who have lost their ability to do many things sometimes are able to regain some of these abilities with treatment.
 
The most commonly used drug is levodopa combined with carbidopa. The National Institutes of Health says levodopa is a chemical found naturally in plants and animals. When it reaches the brain, levodopa is changed into dopamine, the chemical that is lacking in people with the disease. Carbidopa delays the change in levodopa until after it reaches the brain.
 
Levodopa helps ease symptoms of Parkinson's. But it does not prevent more changes in the brain that are caused by the disease. Other drugs used to treat Parkinson’s disease act like dopamine. They produce reactions in the nerve cells in the brain. They can be given alone or in combination with levodopa. Many of the possible side effects are similar to those linked with the use of levodopa. They include sleepiness, feeling sick or having bad dreams.
 
An operation called deep-brain stimulation also is used to treat Parkinson’s disease. Doctors use this treatment to shock the brain in areas that help send messages to the body. These areas can become blocked in Parkinson’s patients. When this happens, the messages give misinformation to the body.
 
In deep brain stimulation, doctors make two small holes in the patient’s head. Next, two thin, electrical wires are then placed in the brain. They are connected under the skin to another wire that leads to a small battery placed in the chest. The device supplies electricity.
 
Deep brain stimulation can reduce the need for levodopa and other drugs. It also helps to reduce symptoms such as shaking and slowness of movement. But brain stimulation has been shown to have more side effects than drug treatments. In one study, about 40 percent of the patients who had the operation experienced problems, including infection.
 
Deep brain stimulation is not the answer for all Parkinson's patients. Doctors say it is best for patients whose medicines cause side effects or are not working. The treatment is not new. It was first approved for use in the United States in 1997.
 
Some American researchers think they have found a way to slow the progression of Parkinson’s disease. Scientists at Northwestern University looked at the brain cells that were most at risk of getting the disease.
 
The cells reportedly permitted lots of calcium to enter their cell bodies. The calcium killed dopamine-producing cells and led to signs of Parkinson’s disease. The scientists say they found a drug that limited the ability of the brain cells to take in calcium, without causing harmful side effects. More tests are planned.
 
Scientists are also exploring experimental treatments. Since taking office, President Obama ended restrictions on the use of federal money for studies of human embryonic stem cells. Stem cells from very early embryos are able to grow into any tissue in the body.
 
Scientists say such cells might be able to cure or treat diseases like Parkinson’s. But opponents say stem cell experiments are wrong because human embryos are destroyed. They say this is just like destroying a human life.




 
This forum has been closed.
Comment Sorting
Comments
     
by: Anonymous from: Iran
07/24/2013 4:22 AM
Thanks a lot for the great performance of Ms Faith Lapidus. I like you and your voice.

Learn with The News

  • New members of the Afghan National Army attend their graduation ceremony at the Afghan Military Academy in Kabul, Afghanistan, Nov. 23, 2014.

    Audio US Says Military Operations in Afghanistan Remain the Same

    Also in the news, India-Pakistan tensions remain at a major South Asia conference in Kathmandu, Nepal; Hong Kong police arrest student leaders and clear streets around Mong Kok; The Revolutionary Armed Forces (FARC) of Colombia frees two soldiers to restart peace talks with the government. More

  • Video Thanksgiving, a Traditional American Holiday

    Thanksgiving is celebrated every year on the fourth Thursday of November. The month of November comes in autumn, the main season for harvesting crops. Thanksgiving is an autumn harvest festival like those found in many cultures. It is viewed as the most traditional of all American holidays. More

  • A flock of 30-pound tom turkeys mill around in the barn at  Raymond's Turkey Farm in Methuen, Mass.,Tuesday, Nov. 21, 2006. The 60-acre farm expects to sell about 9,000 turkeys this holiday season.(AP Photo/Elise Amendola)

    Audio Turkey: A Case of Mistaken Identity

    Many think the bird comes from the nation of Turkey. But turkey is not from Turkey. In fact, the fact that the turkey bird is called by that name is one big mistake. Find out in today's Words and Their Stories. More

  • Audio Group Claims Gender Equality Will End Hunger, Poverty

    A Christian aid group calls for governments and employees to end discrimination against women and girls. Bread for the World says increasing educational levels, giving women more economic power and helping with child care will help them earn more. This will, in turn, help men and their families. More

  • People hide from gunfire near church during firefight between African peacekeepers, fighters from the Christian "anti-balaka" militia, Bangui, Feb. 18, 2014.

    Audio Central African Republic Losing the Next Generation

    Thousands of people have been killed in the fighting in the Central African Republic, and many have been forced from their homes. Among the victims are children whose parents died or have gone missing. For these boys and girls, joining an armed group is one of the only ways to find protection. More

Featured Stories

  • Battle of Cold Harbor

    Audio Strong Defense at Cold Harbor Gives Lee His Last Major Victory

    After Northern forces defeated Southern troops at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania and Vicksburg, Mississippi, General Ulysses Grant decided to hit the Confederates with the full force of the Union armies. The fight did not go as he expected. But General Grant was resolved to defeat the Confederates. More

  • Alzheimer brain

    Audio East Meets West to Treat Alzheimer's Patients

    But researchers in California say a new way of treating Alzheimer’s disease is showing promise for reversing some of that memory loss. The new treatment combines western medicine with eastern philosophy – ideas rooted in Asian religions. More

  • Mr. Van Rijsselberghe worked on the project with scientists from the Free University of Amsterdam.

    Video Dutch Experiment Grows Vegetables in Sea Water

    Due to rising sea level, farmers are increasingly unable to use fields close to the sea. A farmer in the Netherlands is growing small, but healthy and tasty crops in a mixture of fresh and salt water. Farmers in Pakistan may soon be growing Dutch potatoes in areas affected by rising sea waters. More

  • Jonathan Evans Performs with Bonerama

    Video With Bonerama, Three Trombones Lead the Big Parade

    The New Orleans-based group brings together funk, rock, blues and jazz, creating a gumbo for the ears. Bonerama has horns like many bands. But, unlike most groups, the trombone players lead this band. Reporter Jonathan Evans performed with the band and wrote about it for American Mosaic. More

  • A line from Abraham Lincoln's Gettysburg Address is displayed at the Lincoln Memorial in Washington, DC.

    Audio Lincoln's Words at Gettysburg Still Have Meaning

    On November 19, 1863, President Abraham Lincoln said no one would remember his speech at a battlefield cemetery in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania. But Lincoln’s Gettysburg Address remains one of the most important speeches in U.S. history. | The Making of a Nation More

Practice Your Writing

Confessions of an English Learner BlogConfessions of an English Learner Blog

Tell us About Our Programs